Psychology as an academic discipline taught at Kharkov University almost from the very beginning of its existence, although establishing the university in 1805 was not a separate department of psychology, not faculty. At various times of psychologists working for the Faculty of Philosophy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychology. Yes, Master of Philosophy Lyubovskyy PM, who graduated from Kharkov University, became the first to empirical psychology textbook "Short Guide to the skilled soul-sliv'ya" which was published in 1815 in Kharkov. A distinguished psychiatrist and psychologist Kovalevsky PI developed a wide range of psychological problems. Him held one of the world's first experimental psychological studies (in psyhollfizyky), skin sensitivity to changes, based on psychological factors was established classification of mental illnesses and provided their clinical picture. In clinical psychology, PI Kovalevsky made a significant contribution to the development of psychological and legal problems (causes and explored the psychology of criminals including minors) and ethnic psychology (the issue of national peculiarities.) For his significant achievements in the field of psychology and 80 years PI Kovalevsoho was elected a corresponding member of the psychological association in London.
Although O. Potebnya worked all his life to historical filolohich-tional faculty, it is considered not only an outstanding philologist, but also prominent psychologist and psyholllinhvistom. The circle of his psychological research was concerned with the problems of language, thought, creativity, psychology of nations. In the "Thought and language" (1862) set out the main provisions of his psychological concepts, the idea which was pivotal position on the relationship of thought and language and historical approach to their development. It was for him also a factor, which forms the background of these peoples. He made a significant contribution to the development of psychology of creativity. Ideas EA Potebnia affected his immediate disciples (D.M.Ovsyanyko-Kulikovskoe, VI Hartsiyev et al.), Who created the school of psychology of creativity, and the development of philosophy and cultural-historical conception of the famous psychologist L . Vygotsky.
However, a separate department of psychology at the university was established only in 1963. This important psychological point of becoming self-reliance in our university associated with the name Peter Ivanovich Zinchenko, thanks to the efforts which we have and was opened by the Department of Psychology and was its first head. Prof. PI Zinchenko, known for his research on the psychology of memory, was the representative of the Kharkiv psychological school, which has made a significant contribution to the development of national psychology. It has caused major scientific issues of the department (memory), which develops and is preserved to this day.
From 1963 till 1969, when PIZinchenko headed the department under his supervision was performed a number of different studies on the problems of memory and learning (GK Sereda, VV Repkina, AS Yachyna), development of memory in the Primary School (LM Zhitnikova), the structure of the mnemonic (VY Laudis, AV Zemlyans'ka), the functional mechanisms of short-and long-term memory (PB Nevel's'kyi, SP Bocharova, I. Melnik, B. J. Snopyk etc.).. Was posing a problem of memory and its experimental study conducted (G. Repkina, N. Ryzhkov). Rozroblyuvavsya information approach to memory and its processes (PB Nevelsky, Bocharova SP).
After the death of PI Zinchenko (1969) was appointed Chair Professor. GK Sereda, who headed it almost all the time before 1995, when he went to the living. At various times headed the department of psychology and GV Repkina, SP Bocharova, AKDusavitsky. From 1996 till the next time at the head of department professor. AF Ivanov.
Since 1968 has regularly issued a collection of scientific works of the department of "Abstracts of. Problems psychology of memory and learning. During this period led PIZinchenko was protected seven master's theses. At the initiative PIZinchenko was organized and all-Union symposium on the psychology of memory, which was held at the Kharkov University in 1970, immediately after his death.
In 1972, the Department of Psychology training for the subsidiary of psychology at the Faculty of Biology, which over time grew into a separate department, and that decision was taken in 1999. In 1992, the Department of General vyokremylasya Department of Medical and Applied Psychology, headed Laktionov.
2. Teaching staff
The next time the Department of General Psychology has the following teaching staff: 9 teachers (including 2 professors, PhDs, 7 associate professors, Ph.D.), 3 laboratory technicians, 1 engineer.
3. Outstanding staff and pupils
The Department of General Psychology worked eminent psychologist and author of the theory of involuntary memory PIZinchenko galaxy and its students, researchers Memory: GK Sereda, Bocharova SP, LM Zhitnikova, YA . Lyaudys, PB Nevel's'kyi, Repkina GV, NI Ryzhkov, B. J. Snopyk, AV Zemlyans'ka, A. Yachyna et al. In addition, the researchers worked various problems of education: Hustyakov MO, Dubovis-Aranovska DM, Repkina VV, RV Skotarenko et al. They all continued to develop ideas and Kharkov psychological school.
4. Major achievements
Traditional area of research that was conducted at the department of psychology, is the psychology of memory, the department started the founder PI Zinchenko, who made the subject of his research primarily involuntary memory. But as inadvertent and random memory of man was studied not only PI Zinchenko and his students and colleagues, but for almost 25 years GK Sereda and his disciples.
Thus, in psychology memory employees of the department of psychology was made by a number of interesting and important achievements. International recognition of the received theory of involuntary memory, launched by prof. Pyotr Zinchenko. He proved that the most universal requirement of high performance memory is the inclusion of material in a purposeful human activity. Remember the stuff from which a person is active (practical, cognitive, directing) material that is left out such activities, stored in efficiency. It was proved dependence memorizing material from his position in the business: remember that the most effective material, which includes the main goal of content, less efficient one that includes the terms and means of achieving the goal, and very inefficient to remember that material that is flowing background activity and not attributable either to or from the means to achieve it. Dependence of memorizing material, which is the aim, the characteristics of the content and motives of activity: the more active, meaningful, varied and interrelated means converting the material used, the better memory. The more closely the content of goals related to the content of the motive, the better memory. These identified patterns used PI Zinchenko and his students to improve memorization in education (educational psychology) and labor (Engineering Psychology) activity.
In theory, the memory of prof. Gregory Kuzmich Sereda found the development of ideas PIZinchenko of involuntary memory, the value of the material and place in the structure of its effectiveness for involuntary memory, ideas of systems analysis, the role of motivational sphere. GK Sereda proposed and developed a new theory of memory and the memory brought a new definition, whereby the memory is a psychological mechanism for the systematic organization of individual experience, a necessary condition for the next activity. Him was allocated a specific function of memory: temporal elements of experience and estimated-content filter, which organizes the elements of experience under their relevance to humans. Put forward by him and experimentally demonstrate the hypothesis futurologist nature of memory is in the following positions: memory performs the activities of the temporal function ", ie the time correlation function of the results of previous and subsequent actions, in all system actions mnemic selection results (principle of the filter) is based on the next steps and strategic objective. This filter is governed by motives and objectives of: determining the objectives of the consolidation of results that will be needed for future course work. So memorization is a key condition potrebova motivational orientation, forward-looking and action mnemic performance depends on the organization of actions in which it is made. In GK Sereda proposed a theoretical model of memory were implemented two trends: intentsionalna and reconstructive. In memory of intentionality understood its orientation to the future, because it determines the future that will be fixed in memory. According to the trend in reconstructive memory nothing remains untouched, and this variability is the law of memory and its functioning. GK Sereda was experimentally demonstrated and unified position on the nature of short and long term memory and their dependence on nature activities. It promoted the principle of the filter is the same for all types of memory. He also showed that, as different types of memory, all mnemic effects also have the same nature, and their manifestation depends on organization of activities. GK Sereda also started studying the problem of "memory and personality, how personality determines memory, its content and development, as well as memory affects personality by building and its perebudovuyuchy dosivd.
LM Zhitnikova proved that development in children mnemonic action passes several stages: simple oriyentyrovkoyu mastering the material, the formation of cognitive and finally transform it into a means of mnemonic actions. Each of these stages in turn, consists of several stages. These results echoed the findings VY Lyaudys, which investigated the structure of the mnemonic as an integrated system of interrelated operations and confirmed that the structure of four mnemonic operations: categorize, group selection, installation intragroup relations and intra-group relations. Through implementation of these operations is built model material, memorable, then that is the basis for his next proper playback.
The chair was made and a number of contributions to engineering psychology. Thus, PI Zinchenko and GV Repkina was introduced into the scientific context of a national memory, given its characteristics and defined the notion of operational units of memory. Their contents vary from actions carried out, namely the nature of goals and ways of its implementation.
A number of important results have been obtained in works performed in line with the information approach to memory. Bocharova SP has been proven that most effectively stored relevant, essential in this situation, the signs used to achieve the goal, and to remember that equally important as the direct use of the object in the activities and presence in it important traits. She suggested the structural-functional model of memory as the basic structure of the integral activity. Based on this model the study of memory in different types of employment rights.
PB Nevel's'kyi concluded that even a large excess amount of information is a factor that positively affects the logical processing of information in the process of memorization and performance memory.
NI Ryzhkov has proven that successful short-term memory encoded information necessary osmyslyuvannya characters and their decoding. Logical grouping of material are the means of his conversion is a shortage of time. The more complex the code for processing the content, the worse and slower it memorable. It has been shown that memory depends on the particular problems and ways of remembering not only sensible material, but also in terms of short-term memory of a specific code of the material.
OV Zemlyans'ka found a number of patterns of information processing in short-term human memory, namely the conditions and means of efficient conversion of the material to increase the amount of information influence on this content and extent of formation of ways of action in the alphabet of the material, the amount of information communication, stored, with the ability to timely and accurately its actualization, the role of signal probability forecasting processes and probability of possible answers; augmentation noise short-term memory.
Experimental study of short-term memory (auditory and visual) were devoted to study B. J. Snopyka. They showed that in a combination of cognitive and mnemonic tasks arbitrary short-term memory is independent of the performance of cognitive tasks; mnemic problem was stronger for cognitive. Different cognitive tasks differently affect the memorization of the material in a short-term memory, and problem affects mnemic always the same, because its implementation is used for most mastered ways. It was also shown that memory performance depends not only on the nature of the previous material, but also from the way previous action.
Were important achievements in the field of psychology training. D.M.Dubovis-Aranovskoyu conditions studied performance of students with educational texts, understanding the genesis of the text. It proved that our understanding of the text is the selection of its logical structure and the ability to collapse the logical structure of text in his plan and then deploy it in a separate logical exposition.
Skotarenko RV investigated and found patterns of independent work of students studying educational material: the need for meaningful communication homework from the previous teacher explaining the lesson, clear and specific goal setting and cognitive activity, the formation of skills of work with educational texts. Revealed the relationship of image and logical thinking of students in reading geographical maps as a special action in the structure of learning activities. Revealed the composition of specific cognitive operations adequate proofreading and rapid geographic information from maps by analyzing the symbols and marks and transfer them to plan imaginative ideas and logical knowledge.
MO Hustyakov proven capabilities of students in generalized knowledge and skill to do when building a geometric proof of educational material on the principle "from general to private and use methods of formation of mental actions. Him also investigated the link between emotion and motivation and own intellectual operations in a single creative process of solving the problem. He showed that under conditions of high motivation and content, the most successful intellectual achievements clearly indicated, fixed positive emotions, and not marked as failed. The approach to successful human achievements also accompanied surge of positive emotions, so people not only stop its actions in this direction, and, conversely, also makes them.
A. Yachyna showed that the formation of the schoolchildren of different techniques and skills of cognitive actions can be further transformed into an arbitrary logical ways to remember. Findings that suggest the students improve memory by use of methods of processing logical material. Shown that the greatest effect arbitrary memorization curriculum has a combination of interesting work on learning the material from its logical structure in reliance on involuntary cognitive learning of the action.
Research at the Department of General Psychology is now in two directions - the psychology of memory and learning psychology.
The direction of "the psychology of memory continues and develops the tradition initiated by PI Zinchenko and GK Sereda, making the subject of functional studies, genetic and historical aspects of memory. As a result of this work was received by a number of new and important results.
Was The active-level approach to the individual memory, whereby the memory can be represented at three levels: activities, actions and operations. It was also shown that memory has a gender dimension, and studied both differences and similarities in the memory of men and women. Initiated a study of collective and historical memory and collective memory shown role in promoting civic and national identity (Ivanova OF). The author specifies the number of memory patterns relations with other cognitive processes: memory functions in the structure of perception, short-and long-term relationship with various aspects of memory and logical thinking pattern, the terms of the efficiency of motor memory shown ontogenetic development of short random play (Zaika EV). The regularities of short term memory functioning, such as its size, completeness, accuracy, throughput and others. (Melnik IM). A comparative study of arbitrary memory in preschool children showed that mnemic processes in the course of historical development experience not only quantitative but also qualitative changes and restructuring. It was proved that development is due to arbitrary memory features of that exercise, school and socio-historical and cultural situation which determine the existence of both similarities and differences in the characteristics memory of preschool children of different cultures and at different stages of historical development Society (Nevoennaya OA). It was the influence of motivational life sphere of memory, namely semantic knowledge motivational orientations of significant others who are involved in communicating or performing similar activities (Melnik IM). Confirmed the findings on the impact of the emotional sphere of personality to play as long-and short-term memory (Nevoennaya OA). Training game developed cognitive processes of pupils and students, as a system development exercises and games to develop logical and imagery and spatial thinking, insight, memory, internal action plan and others.; Used for both gifted children and for students with Problems in Education (Zaika EV).
As a response to changes in society vibuvayutsya, the department of psychology developed by the scientific theme of individual and collective memory in transforming society. We study the problem of historical memory and its features, the basic approaches to collective and social memory, extracted object and their research methods. It was found that at the present stage of development of various social strata of Ukrainian society significantly different in the psychological characteristics of culture (Maievska NA). In collaboration Majewski NA questionnaire was designed to study the so-called cultural dimensions.
Studies of social memory in data communication enabled characteristics memorization and reproduction of socially relevant information at both the individual and the group. Was obtained as a number of results on human emotional memory. Emotional memory of people of different social groups depends on their values and emotional orientation. Showing the emotional characteristics of the remote and immediate memory.
Study of reproduction showed that there are age differences in the featured and "forgetting" unnecessary material. Throughout the school age is a gradual improvement of reproduction by uniform growth.
Delivered problems of studying long-term emotional memory of different social groups, setting the age peculiarities of memory management and its school development, the influence of leading personalities of motivation on the processes of memory. Started building a computer model of motivation with mnemic processes.
Some theoretical developments have found practical use in engineering psychology. Zhornik EV showed that control of moving objects is a kind of indirect complex motor acts; for example, operator specific activities associated with management of moving objects, proved the possibility of obtaining a real increase its efficiency. He also participated in the creation of laboratory facilities to conduct engineering and psychological research.
The second area of research, conducted at the department of psychology, psychology is developing education (Head - prof. Dusavitsky OK). Since the early 80's was an experimental study of a child from junior to senior school age in the conditions of educational activities in elementary school (Dusavitsky OK). It was shown that the principles of learning theory and education training and developing training to form a number of important qualities.
Many experimental studies have shown that in terms of developmental education at younger ages are formed tumors are important as a steady interest in content knowledge, which extends to the environment and encourages students to independently seek new sources of information. Laid the foundations of theoretical thinking, ability to plan their actions to the analysis of material properties subject to reflection methods of educational activities. Emerging ability to dialogic forms of interaction, compassion, respect for other points of view, adequate self-esteem. Tumors are common psychological desire and ability to learn, the formation of values is the main of which is the value of knowledge and cooperation. In developing education system in elementary school students formed such emotional features that are more positive than students with emotional features of traditional education (Gimaeva YA).
An important conclusion is the idea of the special role of primary school age in adult life. Fundamentals of theoretical thinking and substantive interests that are laid in this period of life, allowing a teenager to form such an ideal form that leads to the development of man. Shown that at the end of high school age students formed in front of personality is built on the moral interest - the ideal that serves as the conscious motive of life.
Studies of personality in older school age show that in forming the subject of learning activity is the development of individual students who have high levels of readiness for personal and professional self-determination. In high school growing independence, a sense of personal responsibility for their lives, the ability to plan and setting life goals, high samokerivnytstva and self-control, desire for self actualization and the need for knowledge, ability to adequately evaluate their performance, set yourself difficult goals.
Even in one cycle studies have shown that the implementation of developmental teaching special needs teacher who has adequate personal and professional self-esteem, high levels of empathy, capacity for flexible thinking and theoretical generalization, dialogic style of interaction, the installation for self-development. It was proved that the developed Dusavitsky OK method of preparation of teachers developing education, gradually forming these personal and professional qualities.
Within the research theme was created sets of textbooks and manuals on various subjects for elementary school approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and are used in the educational activities of schools in Ukraine and other CIS countries.
The theoretical basis of developing training were extended to age and student learning in higher education (Yavorovskaya LM). It proved that the formation and development of cognitive activity in a systematic training of students may be indirect way: special organization teaching and learning of social causes such a transformation of motives (achievement, affiliation, approval), which promotes the development of cognitive activity. It was found that cognitive activity associated with such features as individual self-esteem, anxiety, aspiration level, social motivation. It was shown that one of the most effective conditions for the development of cognitive activity is to organize group form activities aimed at solution of cognitive tasks.
5. Courses, special courses, practices and other forms of
Professors of the department of psychology taught the following standard courses: general psychology (the "psychology of personality" and "psychology of cognitive processes"), experimental psychology ("Do not experimental methods," methods of cognitive activity, "Methods of personality "), developmental psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, history, psychology, neuropsychology, psychology, labor and engineering psychology, psychology, management, psychology of sport, the foundation of psychological and family counseling; methodological problems of psychology, methods of teaching psychology, mathematical methods in psychology.
Department develop a number of subjects chosen by the student, namely: computer psychodiagnostics, organizational psychology, schools and counseling theory of developing education, psychology, personality, psychological characteristics of culture, gender psychology, cognitive processes and their research methods, research methods pictures personality; playing methods in psychological practice, methods of forensic psychological examination.
Faculty control the course and degree work, and graduate students with specialties "General Psychology," and "Educational and Developmental Psychology. Pedagogical practices for managing students.
Material and technical base of the department of psychology consists of computing and multiplying equipment, laboratory equipment and software for use in educational process. There is a base komp'terizovanyh diagnostic methods. At faculty methodical study that has psychological literature fund, which has 2500 units of storage.
The current staff of teachers the department of psychology was published nearly 700 scientific papers, including 3 monographs, 30 textbooks and nearly 500 articles (over 20 in foreign journals).
They regularly participate in national and international conferences, members of the specialized boards, expert councils, editorial boards of Ukrainian and foreign scientific journals. Supports international links with universities in Russia, Belarus, USA, Canada etc..