Web site: http://solids.univer.kharkov.ua
The department of Solid State Physics was established in 1937 by B.Y. Pines, who studied under a famous young scientist A.F. Ioffe, well-known for his pioneer works in Structural Analysis and Refractory Physics. B.Y. Pines’ extraordinary talent as a teacher and a scientist and his unique creative personality determined the way of formation and development of the department for many decades.
In early post-war years the department of Solid State Physics of Kharkov State University was a research center for teachers of educational establishments, scientists, industrial laboratory assistants whose activities were related to basic problems (research) in Solid State Physics. Such distinguished scientists as I.V. Savelyev – an author of a famous General Physics Course, academician B.I. Verkin, Y.S. Borovik and V.G. Hotkevich - associates of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Professor B.N. Yesselson and Professor Y.A. Hindin worked at the department of Solid State Physics.
Having at the disposal overage scientific equipment there were conducted a lot of pioneer research in Thermodynamics of Solid Solutions, Sintering Physics, Thin-film Physics and in Surface Physics at the department and the results of those scientific researches became a subject of the international property. Made under Pines’ guidance constructions of fine-focus X-ray tubes and of high-temperature electron-diffractions were used in many laboratories of the Former USSR and Pines’ “Lectures on Structural Analysis” that went through three editions reckon among the best training aids for Courses on X-ray Diffraction by Crystals.
Professor A.F. Sirenko followed B.Y. Pines and he accepted the call to chair of solid state Physics after B.Y. Pines. In the 70-80’s we could see further development in various fields of Physical Science at the department, in particular, in Physics of hardness and plasticity and in Physics of surface and relaxation phenomena, there were carried out successful researches so they were applied in industry in Kharkov and Moscow (Kharkov tractor plant, OJSC "Turboatom", etc.). There were defended three doctoral and 30 Ph.D. thesis at the department and many specialists were trained there for Europe, Asia, Africa, North and Latin America.
Z. Zyman who is a direct (close) B.Y. Pines’s student showed new perspectives for the department future development. He created a new scientific direction “Physics in biomaterials” that is on the upswing and he contributed greatly to opening a new specialty “Solid State Physics”. Two training manuals were published under licence of Department of Education and Science of Ukraine (Zyman Z.Z. and Sirenko A.F. (2005) Basic Physics in materials; Zyman Z.Z. (2008) Fundamental of X-ray diffraction by Crystals) and they are main sources of information for lecturing most of scientific disciplines at the department. In short period the department of Solid State Physics occupied leading place in formation (creation), investigation and development of new bioactive materials for orthopedic surgery and their practical application in medicine. Traditional scientific subject of the department is in good progress too, in particular, in the matter of the relationship between structures, mechanical and diffusive properties and relaxation behavior of solids.
Scientific laboratory “Physical and medical materials science”:
It was opened at the department for practical training improvement of students and for further research development in Physics of functional materials (University order № 0202-1/099 from 21.06.99 formally approved by Learned Council of the University from 25.06.99, the 6-th protocol).
Scientific achievements (for the last 10 years):
1. There is experimental evidence that rotation effects are not only of great accommodative importance (concern) but these effects also make substantial contribution in plastic deformation. Our received scientific results (go to prove that) point to a significant role of special and near-special grain boundaries in formation of plastic rotations. It was suggested crystal-geometrical model of grain boundaries’ structure that takes account (with consideration of) not only of full match, but also of partial match of atoms in the boundary. By use of the model it was calculated a value of effective energy of the boundary for various disorientation angles and it was also described the nature of low energy in special grain boundaries. It was established a law of formation and development of cracks (splits) in 2-dimensional polycrystalline samples of aluminum with grains of various size and with various types of grain boundaries and it also was determined destruction mechanisms of samples, it was cleared up a question about influence of titanium nitride strengthening covering on the development of relaxation processes and on destruction mechanisms. By use of these scientific results 31 articles were published and 3 Ph.D. thesis were defended (Sakharova N.O., 1999; Shekhovtsov O.V., 2005; Shurinov R.V., 2009).
New effects of internal friction and changes in Young’s modulus of alloys were discovered and these changes were connected with structural, phase and kinetic transformations in alloys under the conditions of superplastic effect. It was shown that the impellent of these transformations is structural and phase metastability that occurs in the process of crystallization and due to the mechanical reduction of alloys. It was established that slippage in grain boundaries is not always dominating mechanism of superplastic deformation. From the experiments it was concluded that hydrodynamic deformation mode occurs due to superplastic conditions. Mass transport processes in alloys at the early stages of superplastic deformation are largely determined by amorphized area in grain boundaries that forms in the process of crystallization or in the process of mechanical presetting of the samples. 20 scientific articles about this question area were published at most in abstract journals.
2. It was synthesized unique calcium-phosphate nanomaterials that by their structure, composition and morphology are close to mineral constituent of hard tissue of vertebrates. It was suggested a new model of hydroxyapatite crystallization from amorphous calcium phosphate by its removal from solutions. It was studied the nature and properties of structural changes in hydroxyapatite nanopowders on annealing. It was discovered a new effect of annealing activation of hydroxyapatite pressings caused by influence of impurity. Based on scientific results of studied physical processes during synthesis and annealing of hydroxyapatite it was created ceramic biomaterials with functional properties close to those of natural bones and of adamantine substance of teeth (enamel). Those materials that showed excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity in experimentation on animals were applied in clinical practice; more than 200 orthopedic operations were made (put/carried out). Postoperative research showed that used biomaterials were high-performance artificial hard tissue substitutes and they could be used successfully in further clinical practice. On this subject it was defended Ph.D. thesis (Rokhmistrov D.V., 2009) and 25 scientific articles appreciated by Scopus system were published.
Since 2000 every year the best students at the department (2-4 persons) take an opportunity to get fellowship of Leonard Euler (DAAD, Germany). So during their studies in magistracy they get fellowship DAAD and finished their graduation works being on month’ probation in one of the best universities of Germany (Ruhr University in the city of Bochum, Duisburg-Essen University in the city of Essen). After graduation the most successful such graduates has an opportunity to do postgraduate studies (or to study by doctoral program abroad) and to get scientific degree of Candidate of Science (or Ph.D.) so they are offered lecturing or research work to the best educational and research institutions of Ukraine and European Union (S.Sherbina, McGill University, Canada; O.Prymak, X-ray laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry Institute, Germany; M.Polyakov, Leibnitz Institute, Rostock, Germany; M.Naboka, core firm, Germany, etc.).
In 2010-2011 candidates to get fellowship of Leonard Euler (DAAD, Germany) are students of the fifth’ year: K.Loza, Y. Prychodko, I. Semenenko. In May 2011 they are going on probation to CeNIDE (Center of nanointegration and biomaterials) at Duisburg-Essen University.
Scientific results are actively set forth by scientific workers of the department in national and international scientific forums. Thus, in the period from 6 to 10 September, 2010, in Crimea, Beregove, was held another international conference “Ukrainian-German Symposium on Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Nanobiotechnology”. There were more than 200 conferees from Ukraine, Germany, Poland and Lithuania. It was announced a competition among the post-graduate students and young scientists for the best report or the best poster presentation. K.Loza who is a student of the fifth’s year and a candidate to get fellowship of Leonard Euler (DAAD) was awarded first-degree diploma for the poster “Phase composition changes in the process of hydroxyapatite crystallization”.
Study groups from Germany (University of Duisburg-Essen) and our department that since 2000 work closely in Physics and Chemistry of biomaterials, on Symposium, 2010.
Young scientists of the department (from left to right): competitor A. Goncharenko, fifth’s year student K. Loza and Senior Lecturer D.V. Rokhmistrov, on Symposium, 2010.
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